Africa is generally divided into five regions: Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Central Africa.
This region consists of the following countries: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the Western Sahara. Northern Africa has four primary geographic features: In the south is the Sahara desert, the Atlas Mountains are in the west, and the Nile River and the Red Sea in the east. It generally has an arid desert climate. The primary language spoken in this region is Arabic, with some countries also speaking Berber (an Afroasiatic language), French, and some Spanish. The region is predominantly Muslim and the largest ethnic groups in the region are Arabs. Popular destinations include: Pyramids of Giza (Egypt), Marrakesh (Morocco), Carthage (Tunisia).
This region consists of the following countries: Angola, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Southern Africa has very varied geographic features: from forest to grasslands to deserts, as well as coastal areas and mountains. It has a broadly divided climate, as well, due to its varied geography. There are many languages spoken throughout Southern Africa, with at least 35 indigenous languages represented in South Africa alone. The majority of African ethnic groups in Southern Africa speak Bantu languages. The three main religious traditions in Southern Africa are African traditional religions (like Bantu mythology), Christianity, and Islam. Popular destinations include: Kruger National Park (South Africa), Victoria Falls (Zimbabwe/Zambia), Sossusvlei (Namibia), Lake Malawi (Malawi).
This region consists of the following countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. Some of the primary geographical features of Western Africa include the Sahara Desert and the Niger River, as well as the western Guinea coast. The Western African climate is varied with the dry Sahara to the North and East, and the humid climate to the South and West. This means they will experience seasonal monsoons. Western Africans primarily speak Niger-Congo languages, like Yoruba and Igbo. Islam is a predominant religion in Western Africa, but you also have people who follow Traditional African religions, like Akan religion and Yoruba religion, as well as Christianity. Popular destinations include: Accra (Ghana), Bijagos Islands (Guinea-Bissau), and Yankari National Park (Nigeria).
This region consists of the following countries: Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda. Eastern Africa has four primary geographic features: Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya, the two tallest peaks in Africa, as well as the world’s second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria, and the world’s second deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. The Eastern African climate is a bit atypical for an equatorial region, since it is surprisingly cool and dry, partially in thanks to the region’s generally high altitude, as well as the westerly monsoons.
Eastern African language use is divided by region, with Horn of Africa and Nile Valley areas speaking Afroasiatic languages mainly, while the African Great Lakes region speaks Niger-Congo languages, like Kikuyu, primarily. Swahili is also an important trade language. Islam is a predominant religion in Eastern Africa, but you also have people who follow Traditional African religions, like Maasai mythology, as well as Christianity. Popular destinations include: Ngorongoro Crater (Tanzania), Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park (Uganda), and Amboseli National Park (Kenya).
This region consists of the following countries: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe. The basin of Lake Chad is a very significant geographic feature of Central Africa. It generally has a hot, tropical climate. French is a primary language spoken across much of Central Africa, with some Portuguese and French, as well. The region is predominantly Christian and the largest ethnic groups in the region are Luba, Mongo, and Kongo. This part of Africa isn’t as highly touristed, so there isn’t as much tourism infrastructure right now.